Mail and Wire Fraud: The Basics

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Jason B. Freeman

Jason B. Freeman

Managing Member


Mr. Freeman is the founding member of Freeman Law, PLLC. He is a dual-credentialed attorney-CPA, author, law professor, and trial attorney.

Mr. Freeman has been named by Chambers & Partners as among the leading tax and litigation attorneys in the United States and to U.S. News and World Report’s Best Lawyers in America list. He is a former recipient of the American Bar Association’s “On the Rise – Top 40 Young Lawyers” in America award. Mr. Freeman was named the “Leading Tax Controversy Litigation Attorney of the Year” for the State of Texas for 2019 and 2020 by AI.

Mr. Freeman has been recognized multiple times by D Magazine, a D Magazine Partner service, as one of the Best Lawyers in Dallas, and as a Super Lawyer by Super Lawyers, a Thomson Reuters service. He has previously been recognized by Super Lawyers as a Top 100 Up-And-Coming Attorney in Texas.

Mr. Freeman currently serves as the chairman of the Texas Society of CPAs (TXCPA). He is a former chairman of the Dallas Society of CPAs (TXCPA-Dallas). Mr. Freeman also served multiple terms as the President of the North Texas chapter of the American Academy of Attorney-CPAs. He has been previously recognized as the Young CPA of the Year in the State of Texas (an award given to only one CPA in the state of Texas under 40).

What Is Mail and Wire Fraud?

Mail and wire fraud are essentially treated the same under the law—both require/involve a scheme to intentionally defraud another. Whether one is applicable depends, generally, upon whether the scheme at issue is perpetuated through the mail or through a wire transfer.

Notably, the scheme to defraud does not have to primarily use mail or wire to complete the fraud; the use of mail or wire at any point during the scheme may be sufficient to charge a defendant under the statutes.

Elements of Mail and Wire Fraud Offenses

For a defendant to be found guilty of mail or wire fraud, the following three elements must all be proven beyond a reasonable doubt: 

Use of mail is not limited to the United States Postal Service (USPS). Private couriers such as UPS or FedEx also can be used to satisfy mail fraud, as long as the courier operates interstate.

What Is the Necessary Intent?

Intent is a critical part of mail and wire fraud. Because mail and wire fraud are specific intent crimes, the government must prove that the defendant intended to:

Importantly, it does not matter whether the defendant intended to use mail or wire, only that the defendant should have reasonably foreseen such use. For example, if a victim sends mail or wire to the defendant as a result of the scheme, the defendant may be found responsible.

Withdrawing from Mail and Wire Fraud

Federal courts in Texas allow defendants to prove that they withdrew from the scheme as an affirmative defense. To prove a withdrawal defense, the defendant must show that he or she (1) acted in a way contrary to the scheme’s objective and (2) communicated a withdrawal from the scheme to the co-schemers. 

If a defendant can establish a withdrawal defense, he or she will not be liable for the mail or wire fraud charge, even if the scheme was ultimately completed by the co-schemers.

Penalties for Mail and Wire Fraud

The maximum sentence for mail and wire fraud charges is 20 years imprisonment and a fine of not more than $250,000 for individuals and $500,000 for organizations. However, under the alternative fine provision, the fine can be up to twice the amount of gain or loss for the victim, even if that number exceeds the $250,000 or $500,000 maximum. Furthermore, courts can impose consecutive sentences for multiple mail and wire fraud charges.


White Collar Defense Lawyers

Accused of tax evasion, wire fraud,  conspiracy, or a RICO crime? Contact us as soon as possible to discuss your rights and the ways we can assist in your defense. We handle all types of cases, including complex international tax fraud allegations. Schedule a consultation or call (214) 984-3000 to discuss your allegations and investigations concerns.